Standard #8: Instructional Strategies

The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage learners to develop deep understanding of content areas and their connections, and to build skills to apply knowledge in meaningful ways.

Similarities and Differences

Explain/Define it:

Seeing similarities and differences is a fundamental cognitive process (Gentner & Markman, 1994; Medin, Goldstone, & Markman, 1995). As an instructional strategy, it includes various activities that help learners see patterns and make connections. For example, students compare things that are similar and contrast things that express differences. They classify when they identify features or characteristics of a group of objects or ideas, and then develop a scheme to organize those objects.Choose an artifact from class that has meaning to you now and application for your future profession and upload it to your e-portfolio.

Similarities and Differences

  • Use a paragraph to describe the artifact and connect it to the Maine Common Core Teaching Standard.

Seeing similarities and differences is a fundamental cognitive process (Gentner & Markman, 1994; Medin, Goldstone, & Markman, 1995). As an instructional strategy, it includes various activities that help learners see patterns and make connections. For example, students compare things that are similar and contrast things that express differences. They classify when they identify features or characteristics of a group of objects or ideas, and then develop a scheme to organize those objects.

  • In the next paragraph, reflect upon how the artifact contributes to your expanding pedagogical knowledge and becoming a metacognitive teacher or professional. How will this improve your practice when you are in your first classroom or career?

This artifact contributes to my expanding pedagogical knowledge and becoming a metacognitive teacher by making connections using patterns in Art projects such as learning about and drawing quilts, zentangle’s, and pointillism. By learning about these subjects, students will build skills and apply knowledge in meaningful ways. We will also compare similar lines and contrasting colors which will give a deeper understanding of the content areas and their connection.

Instructional Strategies
Based on Five to Thrive,
Pijanowski
Compiled by EDU 202, Fall 2021
Page !2
ACTIVATION
KWL Chart Page 3
Student Learning Goals Pages 4-5
Games for Learning Pages 5-6
COLLABORATION
Socratic Seminar Page 6
Jigsaw Page 7
Simulation and Role Playing Pages 8-9
METACOGNITION
Concept Mapping Page 10
Summarizing/Note-Taking Page 11
Similarities and Differences Pages 11-12
Think Aloud Page 12
Close Reading Page 13
Annotations Pages 13-15
Non-linguistic representations Page 16
COMMUNICATION
Powerful Questioning Page 17
Argumentation Page 18
RAFT – Role, audience, format, topic Page 19
Learning Targets Page 20
APPLICATION
Interactive Notebooks Pages 21-22
Project-Based learning Pages 23-24
Generating and Testing Hypotheses Pages 24-25
Page !3
K-W-L Chart
Definition: a type of graphic organizer that teachers have students use before, during, and after a
lesson. This graphic organizer is used to activate students’ prior knowledge and get them thinking
about what they will learn throughout the lesson and then at the end of the lesson they will have to
recall what they have learned. Determining the students prior knowledge also helps the teachers
know where to start with their material.
• The K is what the students know prior to the lesson/unit
• The W is what the students wonder/ want to know about the lesson/unit before they start
learning
• The L is what the students have learned after the lesson/unit has been taught
Classroom Application: There are two ways of teaching while using K-W-L charts. The teacher can
either use a big piece of paper and ask students to raise their hands and then write their responses,
or each student can get a chart on their desk and make their own organizer. You could also do an I
do, We do, You do, where I give an example of a K-W-L chart, the next time I do one with the help of
the class, and then for the next assignment the students will have to do one on their own.
Classroom Management and Considerations: If students are working individually they are expected to
be quiet so that the only things written on their paper is their own ideas. They could also get assigned
a certain amount of minutes for each column. If we are working as a class, students would be
expected to raise a quiet hand and be respectful by allowing one person to share at a time. The L part
of the K-W-L chart will also motivate students to be engaged in the topic because they are being
asked what they have learned over the course of the lesson.
Page !4
Student Learning Goals
Definition/Purpose: The purpose of student learning goals is to inform students about their
performance expectations and to promote them monitoring their own progress. We want to
encourage students to write challenging yet attainable goals that are customized to meet their
individual needs and create a greater sense of self-advocacy.
When creating student learning goals there are several recommendations to keep in mind according
to Pijanowski:
• Set learning goals (objectives) that are specific but not restrictive
• Communicate the learning goals (objectives) to students and parents
• Connect learning goals (objectives) to previous and future learning
• Engage students in setting personal learning goals (objectives)
According to the University of Western Florida and goal should be formed using the acronym
SMARTER; specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, timely, evaluated, and reviewed.
Classroom Application:
A great opportunity to group students based on learning goals is through centers; in science we have
learned about incorporating literacy into our science lessons. This is the perfect opportunity to break
students based on their A-Z reading level which gives each group different learning goals in order to
progress to the next level. Throughout this process we may see some students progress at a faster
rate than others but every student learns at their own pace which provides the opportunity for every
student to understand their individual objectives in order to move on. When we break students into
groups/centers we have the opportunity to assign group roles that provide students with a whole new
set of learning goals that are directly related to their job and individual assignment, so the possibilities
for student learning goals are endless.
Page !5
Classroom Management Considerations:
Above I have a goal setting worksheet for elementary students that I absolutely love! The students
are responsible for creating a goal, setting a date they hope to complete the goal by, and then coming
up with instructional strategies that they will use to complete their goal. This is a great way to keep
kids responsible for meeting their goals but gives students the opportunity to think about the different
ways they can attain their goals because not everyone is going to have the same goal or strategies.
Links:
https://onlinedegrees.uwf.edu/articles/how-to-develop-student-learning-goals/
https://www.goucher.edu/learn/curriculum/student-learning-goals-and-outcomes/purpose
Games for Learning
Example and definition
• Use games or fun concepts to be games or hiding as fun things. Think of it like hiding pills in
cheese
• Making them do something that seems fun but is spooky learning
Example of classroom application
• Use the elements as students to see if they can add them selfs together to call out the new
element formed
Classroom management consideration
• Can they count
• Is there enough kids
• Are the kid’s good kids
• Can the kids listen to what is going on and know the information
• If we split them will it cause Hiroshima
Images and links
https://www.google.com/imgres?
imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fi.pinimg.com%2F474x%2F71%2Fce%2Fcb%2F71cecb8d9f0f310ec3151d
555ff91f52–
college.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fpin%2F426082814724781439%2F&
tbnid=uFvLPwsq8a-

I4M&vet=12ahUKEwjTw8DcxIn0AhXkg3IEHV7mBGwQMygAegUIARC6AQ..i&docid=zYLxBUoIEHVn

M&w=471&h=665&itg=1&q=kids%20dressed%20up%20as%20elemts&ved=2ahUKEwjTw8DcxIn0Ah
Xkg3IEHV7mBGwQMygAegUIARC6AQ
Page !6
https://www.google.com/url?
sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fpin%2F258886678551937422
%2F&psig=AOvVaw0UQuFOyDWnO4g1KFCbYO0&
ust=1636487387382000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjRxqFwoTCLjlz
d_EifQCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAM
Socratic Seminar

  1. A Socratic Seminar is an instructional method that allows students to achieve deeper
    understanding of a text through engaged discussion of a text.3
  2. Reading: First Paragraph of Declaration of Independence5. You should have students do some
    prep work ahead of the class period so that the students are able to have a fun and engaged
    discussion (ex. have the reading for homework and then discuss the reading the next in-class
    period). Give students time to prepare ideas before the lesson.
  3. The aim of a Socratic Seminar is to have group discussions, so students would be in a large
    group in a circle. Establishing a set of rules (Don’t put down another person’s idea. Don’t
    interrupt. Refer to the text as evidence, etc…)4
    Links
    1https://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/socratic-seminars
    2https://www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/teaching-strategies/socratic-seminar
    3https://edtechbooks.org/studentguide/socratic_seminar
    4 https://learn.canvas.net/courses/1117/pages/socratic-seminar
    5 dec of independence
    Page !7
    Jigsaw
    • Explain/define it
    Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy. It involves breaking the class into
    groups, referred to as “home” groups, where each student in the group is given their
    own topic to study in relation to a larger subject. Then the students meet the students in
    other groups who have the same topic, referred to as “expert groups” where they share
    information to report back to their main group. (hard to explain but example should help)
    This strategy is useful in a classroom setting because it encourages students to
    cooperate with other students in order to enhance their knowledge. By engaging in
    these groups, listening, communication, and problem-solving skills are improved.
    • Example of classroom application
    Class of 20 learning about Penguins:
    The class would be separated into 5 groups of 4 students, and each student in the
    group would be given a different topic on about penguins.
    Topic 1: Habitat
    Topic 2: Diet
    Topic 3: Mating
    Topic 4: Predators
    Each member in the group would do their own research on whatever topic they
    were assigned, and they would meet up with the members in other groups who have the
    same topic. They would then share what they have gathered, gain new information from
    the other students, and then report back to their main group.
    • Classroom management considerations
    The teacher must consider the different reading and comprehension levels of the
    students in each group. For example, one group should not be comprised of students
    who are all at a more advanced reading/writing level while another group has students
    who need a bit more help.
    • Images/LinksExample of Jigsaw method in the classroom
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtm5_w6JthA
    Page !8
    Simulation/Role Playing
    Simulation/Role playing is a way to engage students with hands-on activities, leading to learning. It
    can be as simple as allowing students to play with one another, develop characters, and act out
    situations from the real world or their imaginations. A simulation is similar to role playing, but it
    involves more rules and possible problem solving.
    According to Academic Technologies, this strategy involves four steps. Preparation and explanation of
    topic by teacher, student preparation, the activity, and a discussion at the end. It is important for the
    educator to separate the students into groups, explain the topic, and set the rules. Students must
    understand the rules, which groups they are in, and their topic. They should be given time to research
    and prepare for their roles. An example of an activity could be allowing students to play with money at
    a “grocery store” where they can buy food items. This directly relates to real life events, and allows
    younger students to play the role of an adult and shopkeeper. Another example could be an online lab
    simulation for high school students. This puts students in the position of a lab professional and gives
    them real life problems to solve using virtual lab equipment. Lastly, students taking health courses
    can role play or simulate certain events where they can then practice their learning on other students
    as a model, such as triage and wrapping bandages. Overall, it is important for students to vocalize
    their ideas, feel comfortable, and gather meaning from the simulation/ role playing. The teacher’s job
    is to step in when necessary, and make sure certain rules are followed. The discussion portion is
    necessary for students to be able to communicate, understand the meaning, and discuss what they
    have learned. The educator can then reflect on the experience from that point forward.
    https://academictechnologies.it.miami.edu/explore-technologies/technology-summaries/role-play-andsimulations/
    index.html
    Page !9
    Page !10
    Concept Mapping
    Definition: A concept map is a visual representation of a topic that students can create using words,
    phrases, lines, arrows, space on the page, and perhaps color to help organize their ideas and show
    their understanding of an idea, vocab term, or essential question.
    How Do You Make a Concept Map with the Class?
  4. 1st – brainstorm a list of words, phrases, or ideas they associate with
  5. 2nd – sort and arrange the items in the list visually on a page to represent both the items’
    relationships to the topic and to each other
  6. The result is a visual representation of of the
    students thinking about idea, term, or question
  7. They can then refer to concept maps over the
    course of a lesson for clarification or just to
    revise them
  8. This provides a way for both the teacher and
    student to track understanding and growth
    Example of Classroom Application:
  9. Select a concept
  10. Explain to the students they will be generating a
    concept map bases on the topic they choose
  11. Ask the students to generate a list of words,
    phrases and ideas they want to use
  12. Ask them to write a concept or topic question in the center of a piece of paper
  13. Ask students to sort the list of words in a way that makes sense to them
  14. After they have generated and sorted their list, have them connect their ideas with lines, dotted
    lines, and arrows
  15. They should have a brief explanation above each connecting line that connects their thoughts.
  16. They could even make a key using colors or different kinds of lines.
    Classroom Management Considerations:
  17. In groups, they can come up with ideas that they
    want to put into their concept maps
  18. They can then share out to the class about what
    they want to include in their concept map
  19. Then independently, they will formulate a concept
    map that makes sense to them
    Chapter 5 Pijanowski
    https://www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/teachingstrategies/
    concept-maps-generate-sort-connect-elaborate
    Page !11
    Similarities and Differences
    Explain/Define it:
    Seeing similarities and differences is a fundamental cognitive process (Gentner &
    Markman, 1994; Medin, Goldstone, & Markman, 1995). As an instructional
    strategy, it includes various activities that help learners see patterns and make
    connections. For example, students compare things that are similar and contrast
    things that express differences. They classify when they identify features or
    characteristics of a group of objects or ideas, and then develop a scheme to
    organize those objects.
    Give an example of classroom application:
    Page !12
    We could explain differences and similarities between the pilgrims and Native
    Americans by using a graphic organizer like a Venn Diagram. By formatting a
    diagram students can make contrasting connections that will then help them with
    their writing assignment.
    Classroom Management Consideration:
    Students benefit by direct instruction and open-ended experiences in identifying
    similarities and differences. Teachers can increase learning potential with
    research-based strategies, such as presenting students with similarities and
    differences explicitly when this helps them reach a learning goal. As a result of
    the teacher’s instruction, students recognize similarities and differences in order
    to understand something specific.
    Images/Links to learn more about it.
    https://search.yahoo.com/search?
    fr=mcafee&type=E211US1194G0&p=similarities+and+differences+in+learning+explain
    %2Fdefine+it
    https://criticalthinkingsecrets.com/metacognition-and-critical-thinking/
    Think Aloud Strategy
    Think aloud strategy is when someone verbalizes what they are doing as they
    are reading to monitor their comprehension. It’s to help students figure out how to
    construct meaning from a text. Teachers will model this for students by verbalizing while
    reading a passage or doing a math problem.
    It is used in the classroom to help students work through problems or a text on
    their own. It could be used in small groups or if a child is stuck on something they can
    use think aloud to try to figure out the meaning of the passage or what they have to do
    next. This will help build students’ confidence and problem solving skills. Think alouds
    may just be used at students’ discretion or teachers may implement it into part of the
    lesson.
    Students have to be taught how to use the think aloud strategy in class and to
    deepen their understanding. First the teacher will have to explain the think aloud
    strategy and model how it is done. Then they will work through it together as a group.
    Then the students will go off in pairs or small groups and practice. Once they feel
    comfortable then they will go off and work on it by themselves. This will take some
    practice and will probably need reminders and some more modeling.
    Page !13
    Close Read Education Strategy
    The close read strategy in education is a process of reading that enables
    students to better understand increasingly difficult texts. Close reading involves the
    initial and rereading’s of content so they may identify what the author has to say, why he
    is saying it or the purpose, what the words mean and what the structure of a text tells a
    reader. In simple terms, Close Reading is the repeated readings of a text to increase
    comprehension.
    Close reading can be done on relatively any type of reading material. So this
    strategy can be used all throughout a student’s life to better understand the written
    word. Close reading is simple in that it there are not many steps, the first is to read the
    text while focusing on the author’s words and their meaning. The second step is to then
    discuss the text and its deeper meanings and if students do not understand then they
    read it again, as many times as needed to fully understand the text.
    Using close reading in a class could be potentially boring. Classroom
    management is about making and keeping students interested in learning, even if that
    means thinking out of the box. It is important to choose topics and readings that will
    keep your students focused and engaged, which is potentially difficult to do. One
    example of making things more interesting is say, if in a history class students are
    reading about George Washington and after they have read the text you can make a
    reenactment of an important event or speech in the text.
    Annotations
    Explanation/Definition:
    An annotation is a systematic summary of a text that can help you uncover
    patterns and identity the main points of the text. It also helps improve comprehensive
    and retention of information. Pijanowski states that annotating is a metacognition
    strategy that helps students organize new learning and ideas, think through the learning
    process, and become more self-sufficient. Annotating texts can consist of summarizing
    paragraphs/sentences in your own words, circling or underlying the key points, writing
    comments, questions, or thoughts in the margins, etc. This also allows for you to look
    back on your notes and see exactly where in the text you were reading when you wrote
    the notes which can help you better understand your thinking at the time.
    Example of Classroom Application:
    An example of a classroom application of this is if the students were trying to
    decipher a poem, they could annotate it to help understand the meaning behind it. Much
    of the time, poems are written in a way that needs deciphering and has underlying
    meaning which may not make much sense the first couple times reading it. Going line
    Page !14
    by line and writing your thoughts, asking questions, and underlining/circling key words
    or phrases can help understand the poem in its entirety.
    Classroom Management Considerations:
    In order to facilitate annotation in class, you would need to print out whatever text
    is being read so that the students can write all over it. It can be done online if needed
    but is more convenient if they have it on paper right in front of them. It can be done
    individually or in groups. If done in groups, they can bounce ideas off of each other
    which may help them understand the poem better than if they were trying to figure it out
    alone. If done alone, it can encourage the student to think deeply about the poem and
    the meaning behind it and come to their own conclusions while trying to decipher the
    poem.
    Images/Links
    Definition/Explanation:
    https://learningcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/annotating-texts/
    Easy/simple example:
    https://www.google.com/url?
    sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Flivinginthelayerscom.wordpress.com%2F2019%2F04%2F2
    6%2Ffinding-a-path-into-poetry-with-annotations-fsll-charts-and-poetrychats%
    2F&psig=AOvVaw3NO0ZEMM7KwU54Wg31WHuY&ust=1636487301805000&s
    ource=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjRxqFwoTCNCG-drEifQCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAK
    Page !15
    More complex example:
    https://www.google.com/url?
    sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fpin%2F571464640200960927%2F
    &psig=AOvVaw3NO0ZEMM7KwU54Wg31WHuY&ust=1636487301805000&source=im
    ages&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjRxqFwoTCNCG-drEifQCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAR
    Page !16
    Non-Linguistic Representations
    Explain / Define it
    Non-linguistic representations are graphic or pictorial representations that can be used
    to explain a key concept or major idea of a unit of study. These representations can be
    used to emphasize major ideas, themes, and interrelationships, especially within
    reading comprehension. Non-linguistic representations can used to clarify or elaborate
    on a topic. They can range from graphic organizers, physical models, drawing pictures
    or diagrams, and even engaging in “kinesthetic” (moving around / physical activity)
    activity. Sometime called the theory of “dual-coding,” non-linguistic representations
    attach imagery to a traditional linguistic form of learning.
    Example of Classroom Application
    There are many different types of non-linguistic representations, including, but not
    limited to: graphic organizers, physical models and manipulatives, mental pictures,
    pictures, illustrations, pictographs, and kinesthetic activities.
    Some specific examples:
    If a group of elementary school students are struggling to grasp the relationship
    between the sun, earth, and the seasons, you can ask the students to pretend to be the
    sun and earth to show the relationship visually.
    If high school students seem uninterested in a reading prompt or book, you can use
    non-linguistic representations to read them a particular except aloud and ask them to
    close their eyes and create mental image of what they are listening to2.
    Classroom Management Considerations
    This learning strategy can be used to engage students how are struggling to understand
    or are uninterested in the material. Non-linguistic representations can be used within an
    entire classroom or individually between students and the teacher.
    https://www.ocmboces.org/tfiles/folder987/nonlinguisticrepresentation.pdf
    https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/nonlinguistic-representation/
    Page !17
    Powerful Questioning
    1) Explain and define it
    • The teacher’s role in engaging students in a higher thinking process where they are thinking
    through and creating questions.
    • Powerful questions typically come when they are thought of and planned of time
    • They should get students questioning and expanding their own knowledge
    • Teachers average 100 questions an hour
    ◦ 60-70% require a recall
    ◦ 20% naturally arise
    2) Example of class application
    • Prepare questions ahead of time and make them open ended; if they are complex questions, it
    will help students start to think in new ways
    ◦ Example: While reading a book as a group, pause and ask students questions like, “How
    come Charlotte felt this way?” or “What do you think will happen next?”
    • Create assignments that require students to answer questions
    ◦ Example: Giving students an exit ticket where they must answer a question, “Why do you
    think Wilber acted like this?”
    • Establish a system to involve all students, not just those who frequently participate
    ◦ Example: Plan to integrate powerful questions into different forms of instruction. You can
    have an aloud discussion, individual conversation with the student, written questions, and
    response assignments
    3) Classroom management consideration
    • Grouping – you can mix up grouping by dispersing participation level, or you can group them
    together by participation level, that way no one is overpowered, and no one is taking full rein
    • Procedure/Routine – create a habit for students to respond to powerful questions during
    readings and to think of their own after reading
    • Differentiate Instruction – make the questions appropriate for their current level, that way it is
    not too easy, and they do not need to think about the answer. But also, make sure where it is
    not too hard for them, where they are unable to even answer it.
    https://teaching.uchicago.edu/resources/teaching-strategies/asking-effective-questions/
    Page !18
    Argumentation
    A strategy that can be used across disciplines and that embodies creating a
    communicating an argument. The process can include debate, dialogue,
    conversation, and persuasion, and above all must be claims-based.
    An example of argumentation in a classroom application could be written (paper) or
    presented orally (presentation, debate) Each must have claims to support their
    argument ( Citations or evidence). Usually a debate form split the class in half
    and give them each a side to argue. For example 1 half of the classroom can
    argue the side of Allies in world war 2 and the other can argue the side of the
    axis.
    Classroom considerations-respect each others opinions even if they are opposites.
    Have a 1 person speak at a time
    https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=f-
    V_DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=argumentation+teaching+strategy+history+class&
    ots=4uzsFKf1Zr&sig=8yHCUIOxlv8Wobhe4_
    aFQlfm60#v=onepage&q=argumentation%20teaching%20strategy%20histo
    ry%20class&f=false
    Page !19
    RAFT: Role, Audience, Format, Topic
    What is RAFT?
    RAFT stands for role, audience, format, and topic. This learning strategy is specific to
    aiding in the growth of writing skills. This strategy helps students understand different
    roles and perspectives as the writers, the type of audience they need to address,
    various formats of writing, and the topic students will write about. This strategy
    challenges students to take a topic and write creatively and thoughtfully think about how
    each role of people is important to topic.
    Role of writer: who or what are you as the writer?
    Audience: To whom are you writing?
    Format: Is it a letter? Poem? Speech?
    Topic: What are you writing about? What is the Point?
    RAFT is a strategy that can be used Before, during, or after
    reading. As well as, being used individually, in small
    groups, or as a whole class.
    What is an Example?
    An example of this strategy can be a soldier writing home
    during War.
    Role: American soldier
    Audience: Family back home. Wife, kids, parents, etc.
    Format: Letter
    Topic: the horrors the soldier sees in battle but how the
    thought of his family drives him to survive.
    The student would then take these ideas and translate it
    into a writing assignment. Student should think of this part
    as an outline before writing.
    Classroom management considerations:
    If done individually light conversation can be done but noise level should be almost
    silent. It might become louder when doing this activity in small groups and as a class
    because people are going to want their voices, perspective, and ideas home. Teacher
    should make their expectations on voices level and conversation. Topics clear before
    the students are released to work in small groups or individually.
    Images and Links:
    https://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/raft
    Page !20
    Learning Targets
    • Learning Targets definition:
    • “Concrete goals written in student-friendly language that clearly describes
    what students will learn and be able to do by the end of a class, unit,
    project, or even a course.”
    • “Begin with an I can statement and can be posted in the
    classroom”
    • Write the target in a way students can understand
    • Don’t just write the standard
    • Make sure target is known/shown in the classroom (visuals)
    • Written on board or around the room
    • Unpacking standards with students
    • Examples of classroom application
    • Learning targets could be expressed on the white board, or could even be
    written on assignments given to students
    • Classroom management considerations
    • -setting the students up for success to achieve the learning targets
    • “What will I be able to do when I’ve finished this lesson?”
    • How will I show that I can do this, and how well will I have to do it?”
    • Links and Images
    Sources:
    https://eleducation.org/resources/chapter-1-learning-targets
    Page !21
    Interactive Notebooks
    What are Interactive Notebooks?
    Interactive notebooks use the basics of note taking, but incorporate other senses and
    different areas of their brains into the process. They are not workbooks and are also not
    scrapbooks. The word interaction refers to the student interacting with the physical
    notebook, the information, the texts and images, their classmates and their teacher.
    This strategy is great at allowing the student to form their own preferred learning style,
    or note style for continued learning, and allow them to make the connection between
    skills and knowledge. This tool enhances the student driven classroom.
    Interactive Notebooks frequently include the following:
    -Table of contents (few pages left blank when beginning and can be filled in when
    new material fills the pages)
    -Creativity vs. reflection pages
    -Left side pages for diagrams, drawings, tables, charts, etc.
    -Right side pages for notes, questions and reflections
    -Incorporation of whatever learning tools the student feels most fit and give them the
    most educational gain
    Interactive notebooks are great tools for both assessment review and study.
    What are examples of Interactive Notebooks?
    Some examples of an interactive notebook in a high school algebra class may include:
    a.A left hand page with an example problem broken down into steps with a coinciding
    right hand page with a breakdown of each step and what exactly was performed in
    each and why it was done.
    b.A left hand page with a written word problem and the draw representation of what
    was exactly being described and asked with its coinciding right hand page of each
    step broken down for the solved problem and the answer.
    c.A left hand page with a function and its graph representation with its coinciding
    right hand page of the steps involved in determining how to graph the expression.
    What are some classroom management considerations for the use of Interactive
    Notebooks?
    Interactive notebooks can be a great tool to integrate into the classroom with other
    components that may already be in place. When using worksheets, students can then
    cut out parts they feel are important and paste them into their notebooks. When doing
    group work, the group can brainstorm ideas that they all think are important for that
    specific lesson and add it to their notebook, then go more in depth independently in the
    areas they think are the most important. Students can be given time to independently
    add to their notebooks where they feel it is necessary. There could be virtually endless
    opportunities for mixed integration from other strategies and work sessions into
    interactive notebooks.
    When it comes to physical components, the notebooks themselves are not much per
    student ($1 or less) and the additional components (worksheet diagrams, drawings,
    pictures) can be things already done in class or that the classroom has and us.
    Page !22
    Since interactive notebooks are individualized and up to the student, it is recommended
    that they are not graded besides participation. This encourages students to add what
    they truly think to be the most important to their specific learning and learning style.
    Examples:
    Source:
    https://www.studiesweekly.com/
    interactive-notebooks/
    Page !23
    Project Based Learning
    Explain/Define
    Project based learning is a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by
    spending an extended period of time working on projects that allow them to investigate and respond
    to engaging and complex questions, problems, and challenges.
    This is different from just doing a project because with project based learning the project is
    the delivery method for the important knowledge and skills. This requires critical thinking, problem
    solving, collaboration, and other forms of communication.
    Example of Classroom Application
    https://my.pblworks.org/project/species-survival
    Species Survival Project- Students set out to research endangered species local to their area and
    collaborate to understand why they are no longer thriving. Finding are recorded in field journals along
    with research on how adaptations, learned behaviors, life cycles, food chains, ect relate to the local
    species.
    Classroom Management Consideration
    Grouping
    Students can be grouped randomly or by what endangered animal they would prefer to research.
    Procedures
  20. Students investigate local species that are now threatened or endangered
  21. Findings are recorded in field journals
  22. Students research information about inherited traits, learned behaviors, adaptations, life
    cycles, and food chains of key species in various habitats and make connections to the local
    species and habitat they are investigating.
  23. Students collaborate to come up with ideas as to why the species is no longer thriving
  24. Group work is presented in class
    Page !24
    Expectations
    Staying on task
    Being attentive during presentations
    Engage and ask questions
    Images/Links
    https://youtu.be/B2gBFlPEZ2Q
    https://www.pblworks.org/what-is-pbl/gold-standard-teaching-practices
    https://www.pblworks.org/what-is-pbl
    Generating/testing hypotheses
    Generating and testing hypotheses uses deduction and inference making as a thinking process. This
    helps deepen the students’ knowledge by having them using the critical thinking skills of analysis and
    evaluation. This strategy motivated students to learn because it poses a problem that needs solving.
    An example of a hypothesis outline that a student might use could be, “If (action), then (outcome)”.
    The students would then come up with processes to support their hypothesis. Reminder: this strategy
    can be used beyond the subject of science. Hypothesizing can also be thought of as predicting,
    inferring, deducting, theorizing, and many others (Generating & Testing Hypotheses / Strategies In
    Action).
    An example of using this strategy in the classroom in a non-science context would be by asking
    students what they predict what a book will be about based off of the title or what will happen on the
    next page based off of an illustration (Generating Hypotheses and Predictions). An example of using
    this for science could be hypothesizing the statement; “if a plant doesn’t receive sunlight, then it will
    die”. The students would then figure out how to test this hypothesis by identifying the dependent
    (plant) and independent (sunlight) variable. They would use these to create an experiment that could
    help explain the relationship between the two variables.
    Generating a hypothesis should be
    individual work to allow students to think
    critically on their own at first. Classroom
    considerations for individual hypothesis
    making would be volume level 0,
    focusing on one’s own work with no
    distractions, and teaching students how
    to create a hypothesis using the outline
    or organizer we are using. After creating
    hypotheses individually, students could
    group together based off of similar ideas
    or choose to work on their own.
    Classroom considerations for this could
    be a volume level 2, to allow
    independent workers to still focus and
    assign roles to working in groups to
    ensure that all group members are
    contributing.
    Page !25